乔治·戈登·拜伦勋爵传记

乔治·戈登·拜伦勋爵

乔治·戈登·拜伦勋爵的照片
  • 时间1788 - 1824
  • 的地方伦敦
  • 国家英格兰

诗人的传记

乔治·戈登·拜伦勋爵(1788年1月22日生于伦敦,1824年4月19日生于希腊米索隆吉)是约翰·“疯狂杰克”·拜伦船长和他的第二任妻子、苏格兰女继承人凯瑟琳·戈登·赖特的儿子。在丈夫挥霍了她的大部分财产后,拜伦夫人带着襁褓中的儿子去了阿伯丁,他们靠微薄的收入住在那里的公寓里。船长于1791年死于法国。他的儿子乔治·戈登·拜伦(George Gordon Byron)生来就有内翻足,很早就对自己的跛足产生了极度的敏感。1798年,10岁的他意外地继承了他的叔祖父——第五代拜伦男爵的头衔和产业。他的母亲骄傲地带他去了英国,在那里,这个男孩爱上了纽斯特德修道院幽灵般的大厅和宽敞的废墟,这是亨利八世送给拜伦一家的。在纽斯特德住了一段时间后,拜伦被送到伦敦上学,1801年,他去了英国最负盛名的学校之一哈罗公学。1805年,拜伦进入剑桥大学三一学院。1806年,拜伦把他早期的诗歌私下印成一卷,名为《逃亡的诗作》。同年,他在三一学院与约翰·霍布豪斯结下了一生的友谊,霍布豪斯激起了他对自由辉格主义的兴趣。拜伦的第一部诗集《闲散的时光》出版于1807年。 A sarcastic critique of the book in The Edinburgh Review provoked his retaliation in 1809 with a couplet satire, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,in which he attacked the contemporary literary scene. This work gained him his first recognition. On reaching his majority in 1809, Byron took his seat in the House of Lords, and then embarked with Hobhouse on a grand tour. They sailed to Lisbon, crossed Spain, and proceeded by Gibraltar and Malta to Greece, and to Tepelene in Albania. In Greece Byron began Childe Harolde's Pilgrimage, which he continued in Athens. Byron arrived back in London in July 1811, but his mother died before he could reach her at Newstead. At the beginning of March, the first two cantos of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage were published by John Murray and Byron "woke to find himself famous." During the summer of 1813, Byron apparently entered into intimate relations with his half sister Augusta, now married to Colonel George Leigh. He then carried on a flirtation with Lady Frances Webster as a diversion from this dangerous liaison. Seeking to escape his love affairs in marriage, Byron proposed in September 1814 to Anne Isabella (Annabella) Milbanke. The marriage took place in January 1815, and Lady Byron gave birth to a daughter, Augusta Ada, in December 1815. From the start the marriage was doomed by the gulf between Byron and his unimaginative and humorless wife; and in January 1816 Annabella left Byron to live with her parents. Byron went abroad in April 1816, never to return to England. Byron sailed up the Rhine River into Switzerland and settled at Geneva, near Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Godwin, who had eloped, and Godwin's stepdaughter by a second marriage, Claire Clairmont, with whom Byron had begun an affair in England. There he wrote the third canto of Childe Harold (1816). At the end of the summer the Shelley party left for England, where Claire gave birth to Byron's illegitimate daughter Allegra in January 1817. In October Byron and Hobhouse departed for Italy. In the light, mock-heroic style of Beppo; Byron found the form in which he would write his greatest poem, Don Juan, a satire in the form of a picaresque verse tale. The first two cantos of Don Juan were begun in 1818 and published in July 1819. Meeting with Countess Teresa Gamba Guiccioli, who was only 19 years old and married to a man nearly three times her age, re-energized Byron and changed the course of his life. Byron followed Countess Teresa to Ravenna, and she later accompanied him back to Venice. He won the friendship of her father and brother, Counts Ruggero and Pietro Gamba, who initiated him into the secret society of the Carbonari and its revolutionary aims to free Italy from Austrian rule. He arrived in Pisa in November 1821, having followed Teresa and the Counts Gamba there after the latter had been expelled from Ravenna for taking part in an abortive uprising. But by 1823 Byron was becoming bored with the domesticity of life with Teresa, and in April 1823 he agreed to act as agent of the London Committee, which had been formed to aid the Greeks in their struggle for independence from the Turks. In July 1823 Byron left Genoa for Cephalonia. But a serious illness in February 1824 weakened him, and in April he contracted the fever from which he died at Missolonghi on April 19. Deeply mourned, he became a symbol of disinterested patriotism and a Greek national hero. His body was brought back to England and, refused burial in Westminster Abbey, was placed in the family vault near Newstead. But,145 years after his death, a memorial to Byron was finally placed on the floor of the Abbey.