- 时间1850 - 1894
罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森于1850年11月13日出生在苏格兰的爱丁堡，是一个体面的中产阶级家庭的独子。在他的整个童年时期，他饱受慢性健康问题的折磨，不得不卧床休息。对他影响最大的是他的护士艾莉森·坎宁安，她经常大声朗读《天路历程》和《旧约》，这是他童年时期最直接的文学影响。1867年，他作为一名理工科学生进入爱丁堡大学，在那里，他将追随父亲的脚步，成为一名土木工程师，这是不言而喻的。然而，罗伯特内心深处却有着浪漫的天性，在他执拗地攻读科学学位的同时，他花了很多时间研究法国文学、苏格兰历史以及达尔文和斯宾塞的著作。当他向父亲吐露，他不想成为一名工程师，而是希望从事写作时，他的父亲自然很沮丧。他们达成了妥协?罗伯特将攻读律师学位，如果他的文学抱负失败了，他将有一个体面的职业可以依靠。为了充分了解史蒂文森成长的世界，有必要了解有两个爱丁堡，这两个爱丁堡都在塑造他的个性和观点方面发挥了作用。一方面是新城，受人尊敬，传统，笃信宗教，彬彬有礼。 On the other was a much more bohemian Edinburgh, symbolized by brothels and shadiness. The juxtaposition of the two aspects in contrast to each other made a deep impression and strengthened his fascination with the duality of human nature, later providing the theme for The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In the autumn of 1873, Stevenson was taken ill with nervous exhaustion and a severe chest condition, consequently, his doctor ordered him to take an extended rest abroad. For the next six months, he convalesced in the South of France, working on essays. On his return to Edinburgh, he spent much of his time writing book reviews and articles and experimenting with short stories. Slowly but surely, he earned a name for himself in journalism and his pieces began appearing in distinguished journals such as The Fortnightly Review. At this time, he met an American married woman, Fanny Vandergrift Osbourne, ten years his senior, whom was in Europe trying to escape her estranged husband's influence. For three years, Stevenson (still in ill health) continued his relationship with her and eventually followed her to San Francisco, where she obtained a divorce from her husband and married Stevenson in May 1880. During this time, he published his first book, An Inland Voyage in 1878, an engaging account of a canoeing holiday in Belgium. In August 1880, the Stevensons returned to England. The story of Stevenson life from this point forward is a story centered on a search of a climate where he could live without the fears of his failing health. He and his wife wintered in the South of France and lived in England from 1880-1887, and this time was marked by an active period of literary achievement. His first novel, Treasure Island, was published in 1883, followed by The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) and Kidnapped (1886). For the first time in his life, Stevenson had became a popular author. Upon the death of his father in 1887, Robert Louis Stevenson decided to leave England and sailed for America, where he stayed for a year. In May 1888, accompanied by his wife, his step-son, and his mother, he set sails for the South Seas. Eventually, Stevenson was so enchanted by the life of the South Seas that in December 1889 he bought an estate in Apia, Samoa, convinced that he could never endure the harsh winters of his native Scotland or England. Apia was a perfect location because the climate was tropical but not wild, the people were friendly and hard working, and it possessed a good postal service. He lived at his 300 acre estate, Vailima, in the hills of Apia until his death five years later. The list of his writings for 1890-94 reveals an impressive range of activities. During this time, he completed two of his finest novellas, ?The Beach of Falesa' and The Ebb Tide, two novels, The Wrecker and Catriona, the short stories ?The Bottle Imp,' ?The Isle of voices' and ?the Waif Woman,' and the short pieces collected under the title of Fables. He also worked on a number of novels that he did not live to complete, including St. Ives, The Young Chevalier and Heathercat. He worked with enthusiasm on Weir of Hermiston until the day of his death, December 3, 1894. On that day, he dictated another installment of the novel, seemed in excellent spirits, and was talking to his wife in the evening when he felt a violent pain in his head and almost immediately lost consciousness. He died of a cerebral hemmorauge a few hours later at the age of forty-four.