传记鲁德亚德·吉普林(Rudyard Kipling)

吉卜林

Rudyard Kipling的照片
  • 时间段1865年至1936年
  • 地方孟买
  • 国家印度

诗人传记

鲁德亚德·吉卜林(Rudyard Kipling)于1865年12月30日生于印度孟买,在包括诗歌,短篇小说和小说在内的各种流派中为英国文学做出了重大贡献。他的出生在一个富裕的家庭中,父亲在孟买艺术学院担任建筑雕塑教授的职位,而他的母亲来自一个有成就的妇女。他在印度度过了自己的童年,一个“ aya”照顾了他,在她的影响下,他与印度文化和传统直接接触。他的父母决定将他送到英国接受教育,因此,在五岁的时候,他开始与罗莎(Rosa)夫人一起住在英格兰,这是他所住的小屋的房东虐待 - 殴打和普遍受害 - 他面对着。由于环境的突然变化和他所得到的邪恶待遇,他一生都患有失眠。这在他的文学想象中发挥了重要作用(Sandison A.G.)。他的父母将他从严格的加尔文主义寄养家庭中移走,并在十二岁时将他置于一所私立学校。《英国男生荣誉和职责守则》在后来的生活中深深影响了他的观点,尤其是在忠于团队或团队的忠诚时。1882年回到印度,他曾担任报纸记者和兼职作家,这帮助他获得了丰富的殖民生活经历,后来他在故事和诗歌中介绍了这一点(Martinez,Gabriel A.)。 In 1886 he published his first volume of poetry, ‘Departmental Ditties’ and between 1887 and 1889 he published six volumes of short stories set in and concerned with the India he had come to know and love so well. When he returned to England he found himself already recognized and acclaimed as a brilliant writer. Over the immediately following years he published some of his most exquisite works including his most acclaimed poem "Recessional" and most famed novel "Kim". In 1907 Kipling won the Nobel prize in literature in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterized his writings. Death of both his children, Josephine and John, deeply affected his life. Both these incidents left a profound impression on his life, which his works published in the subsequent years after their deaths displays. Between 1919 and 1932 he traveled intermittently, and continued to publish stories, poems, sketches and historical works though his output dwindled. As he grew older his works display his preoccupation with physical and psychological strain, breakdown, and recovery. In 1936, plagued by illness, he passed away into the world beyond, leaving behind a legacy that will live for centuries to come. Kipling’s works span over five decades, with Tennyson and Browning still writing and Hardy and Yeats unheard of, when his first work Schoolboy Lyrics hit the press (Page, Norman). He wrote during the period now known as the Victorian Age. According to English and Western Literature, conservatism, optimism and self-assurance marked the poetry of this age. Though Kipling’s works achieved literary fame during his early years, as he grew older his woks faced enormous amount of literary criticism. His poems dealt with racial and imperialistic topics which attracted a lot of critics. Critics also condemned the fact that unlike the popular model of poetry, Kipling’ poetry did not have an underlying meaning to it and that interpreting it required no more than one reading. Maguills Critical Survey of Poetry indicates that some critics even attributed the qualities of coarseness and crudeness to his poetry. As Kipling grew older his poetry came under even more scrutiny and doubts began to arise about poetic abilities. These views of the critics come as a surprise due to the fact that even in face of his dwindling reputation in literary circles, his popularity among the masses persisted without change. In fact due to his ability to relate to the layman as well as the literary elite through his works, he joined a select group of authors who reached a worldwide audience of considerable diversity. Kipling’s reputation started a revival course after T.S.Eliot’s essay on his poetic works where Eliot describes Kipling’s verse as "great verse" that sometimes unintentionally changes into poetry. Following Eliot’s lead many other critics reanalyzed Kipling’s verse and revived his poetic reputation to the merited level. In his lifetime Kipling went from the unofficial Poet Laureate of Great Britan to one of the most denounced poet in English Literary History. In contrast to the path his reputation took, Rudyard Kipling improved as a poet as his career matured and by the time of his death Kipling had compiled one of the most diverse collection of poetry in English Literature.